A looming environmental disaster in the South China Sea
10 Apr 2017|Anthony Bergin / The Strategist
Most of the attention in the South China Sea has focused on China’s military activities. But the impending natural disaster there is also cause for concern. As a recent report makes clear there’s been significant coral loss due to sea water warming. But apart from ocean warming, the Chinese government, through over-fishing and reef destruction, is contributing to the devastation.
The Arbitral Tribunal’s award at The Hague in July 2016, in The Philippines v China, found that Beijing’s construction of artificial islands at seven features in the Spratly Islands violated the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea obligations to protect the marine environment. As James Borton reminds us, the Spratly Islands’ immense biodiversity can’t be overlooked.
Beijing suggests that its island building efforts are a ‘Green Project’. The Chinese government claims its techniques simulate the natural processes of weather as sea storms blow away and move biological scraps which gradually evolve into an oasis on the sea.
John McManus, from the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School, has highlighted the impact of island expansion on Scarborough Atoll, Pratas Atoll, the Paracel Islands, and the Spratly Islands corals to a point beyond which they will be unable to recover. Damaged coral reefs wont be able to keep up with rising sea levels. Last year McManus concluded that 40 square miles (104 square km) of some of the most biodiverse coral reefs on Earth have been destroyed in the South China Sea thanks to giant-clam poachers.
Combined with China’s building artificial islands around disputed rocks and reefs, it has paved over another 22 square miles of coral. When the two activities are taken together, McManus says, about 10% of the reefs in the vast Spratly archipelago to the south of Hainan, and 8% of those in the Paracel islands, between Hainan and Vietnam, have been destroyed.
The biologist Alan Freidlander, from the University of Hawaii, notes that dredging and building on coral reefs in the South China Sea is causing irreparable damage to one of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. Damage to coral by humans during construction includes compaction or digging, which breaks the coral apart. The coral can also be buried under sand and concrete, from which it can’t recover.
In pursuing its reclamation activities China should look to UNCLOS, to which it’s a party. Article 206 of UNCLOS states:
‘When States have reasonable grounds for believing that planned activities under their jurisdiction or control may cause substantial pollution of or significant and harmful changes to the marine environment, they shall, as far as practicable, assess the potential effects of such activities on the marine environment and shall communicate reports of the results of such assessments in the manner provided in article 205.’